"People garden in order to make something grow; to interact with nature; to share, to find sanctuary, to heal, to honor the earth, to leave a mark. Through gardening, we feel whole as we create our personal work of art upon our land – BUT nothing compares to what the Creator has already given us in nature." (author unknown)
UNFORTUNATELY – THAT INCLUDES WEEDS!
The old saying that nothing is certain except "death and taxes" should add "weeds" to the list! So what is the difference between a native plant and a weed? Actually none, except the definition we give it which has everything to do with the location and proliferation and little to do with the actual plant. The difference is sometimes in the eyes of the beholder. In England, Dandelion greens are savored in salads and the Dandelion was declared an endangered wildflower! Here, we would gladly export every one we have to England.
A weed by our definition is a plant that grows where it is not wanted. Furthermore, it reproduces and spreads, competes with other plants for light, nutrition, and space; can harbor pests and diseases, and detracts from the desired aesthetic of the landscape. Actually, all of the above characteristics apply to native plants as well.
There are plants out there that we just don't want in our gardens or lawns. They produce seed which may lie dormant until soil is disturbed, are exposed to light, or await the correct temperature or moisture to germinate. They are windblown, spread by birds, or introduced by imported soil. The survival mechanisms of plants we call weeds are pretty impressive and nature has given them the means to survive even our greatest assault upon them. So, realistically, it's a losing battle if your goal is to eradicate every weed in your garden or yard. We can only minimize the impact and continually do battle with these unwanted garden pests.
The goal of any gardener should be to disrupt the life cycle of weed plants without damaging the environment. That last part is very important. It means no use of chemicals that are harmful to other living things (plant and animal) or can be absorbed into our water resources and food supplies.
First, you must accept the fact that weeds are a fact of life and not get so upset every time you see one. After all, having a few weeds among grass is better than grass with bare spots as any plant with a root system helps prevent erosion by their very presence, and any bare spot will only provide fertile ground for more weeds to germinate. Here in Central Texas, we have a lawn turf problem as there is no ideal grass suited for our particular environment. They all allow for weed intrusion. In fact, one of the turf grasses commonly used, Bermuda, is an intruder and becomes a weed when it invades our garden beds. But there is one way to minimize and combat lawn weeds. I begin mowing my lawn at a low setting as soon as spring weeds and grass begin to grow in March. This prevents the weed plants from reaching seeding maturity until the warm weather turf grass begins actively growing. Once that occurs, the turf grass will normally choke out weeds naturally so at that time, I raise the mower to the prescribed height for the type of grass (e.g. 3" for St. Augustine) plus fertilize ONLY with an organic fertilizer to encourage the conquering turf grass to smother the weeds. It really works!
Another way is the physical removal of weeds from the lawn as they appear – hand pulling weeds regularly to keep them from getting out of control. It is best to do this following a rain or when the ground is soft. Some weeds have shallow fibrous roots and are easily pulled by hand, while others form tap roots (e.g. dandelion), for which the entire root must be removed, otherwise it will regenerate from the remaining root. I dispose all weeds that have flower heads or that have gone to seed and underground structures that could regenerate, placing them in the trash and avoid putting them in compost piles. It is OK to place them in lawn clipping bags for recycling into Dillo Dirt. Of course, another environmentally friendly method of reducing weed control maintenance is to reduce your lawn area and replace it with xerophytic landscaping.
Now for the garden beds. The best method to control weeds is a good cover to prevent their growth such as a layer of hardwood mulch, decomposed granite or other inorganic ground covers, or use ground cover plants that will smother them out. Regular tilling of your soil disrupts weed growth cycles and helps reduce weed infestation when mulching is not possible. Anything that is created must be maintained which means any landscaped or garden beds need periodic weeding. Taking care to keep landscape plants healthy also helps them compete better against weeds. So, every time you go out to stroll through and admire your garden, be prepared to pull a weed or as many as you see along the way. Actually, it takes a village to fight weed infestation. If you keep your area relatively weed free and your neighbors don't they will be back in your turf soon. Vice versa, by controlling weeds, you are helping your neighbors as well.
The City of Austin and Texas AgriLife Extension have produced an excellent brochure with much more detailed information about common weeds found in Central Texas entitled, "Grow Green Earth Wise Guide to Weeds". It can't cover every kind of weed we find in our yards so further identification can be made by contacting the local AgriLife Extension office in your county. Knowing what the weed is and it's characteristics helps in combatting them. Quite frankly, I find weeds fascinating. They are as tenacious at surviving as desert plants clinging to life in the dry, hot hostile regions of our country.
See a presentation on weeds at www.centraltexasgardening.info/austinweeds.pdf